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unequivocally in favor of the cause. This is a strong evi- 
dence of the change in sentiment which has already taken 
place. Then, too, the Christian Church, with which the 
peace movement originated three-quarters of a century 
ago, tho very slimly represented in the Congress, is doing 
in many places admirable work for the cause. One need 
only instance the meeting, held in Washington last win- 
ter, of representatives from the leading denominations, or 
the number of sermons preached on peace Sunday or the 
increasingly frequent denunciation of war and advocacy 
of peace in leading religious journals. 

The movement has also become a fixed factor in parlia- 
mentary discussions and resolutions. The Interparlia- 
mentary Conference to which attention is called in an- 
other article represents this phase of the movement. A 
number of eminent members of parliament have been 
members of the Universal Peace Congress since its incep- 
tion, and the number of bills and resolutions introduced 
into various parliaments within a few years, directly to 
promote peace, would, if they could be gathered together, 
surprise those who think that the peace movement is an 
absurd and hopeless thing. 

The two Congresses held at Berne this year, were, on 
the whole, among the best that have ever been held, and 
the friends of peace and concord have abundant reason 
to believe that their efforts are bearing fruit as fast as 
could be expected in public sentiment and in public 


The Interparliamentary Peace Conference, a more 
detailed account of whose deliberations we shall give in 
our next issue, was held immediately after the Peace 
Congress at Berne. It opened on the 29th of August 
and continued for three days. There were present one 
hundred and fourteen members from thirteen different 
European parliaments. Any member of any parliament 
may become a member by giving in his adherence to the 
organization. The Association is purely voluntary, the 
delegates not being sent by their governments. The 
Constitution of the Conference is such as to permit 
ex-members of parliaments, who have previously been 
members of the Association, to continue such. The 
organization was started at Paris three years ago, at the 
same time as the Universal Peace Congress, and with 
similar aims in view. At the first meeting, at the time 
of the Paris Exposition, there were present, but forty 
persons from the Parliaments of England and France 
only. The organization has grown rapidly in size and 
importance and has extended its influence nearly all over 
Europe. There were present this year at Berne, twelve 
members of Parliament from Germany, three from 

Austria, two from Denmark, one from Spain, twenty- 
eight from France, eleven from Great Britain, seven 
from Italy, three from Norway, five from the Netherlands, 
one from Portugal, eight from Roumania, one from 
Honduras and San Salvador, and thirty-two from Switzer- 
land, making one hundred and fourteen in all. Most 
of these were members of the Lower Houses of 
Parliament though five Senators were present. Of 
presiding officers, there were Dr. Baumbach, Vice- 
President of the German Reichstag, Dr. Horst, President 
of the Norwegian Odelsthing, Mr. Ullmann, President 
of the Norwegian Storthing, and the President of the 
States-General of Holland. 

On the whole, it was a very able body of men. Some 
of the debates were of a high character, and the delibera- 
tions were carried on in excellent parliamentary order, 
with Dr. Gobat, of the Swiss National Council, presiding. 
Difference of language aside, with little exception there 
was nothing in the Conference to indicate difference of 
nationality. The members were earnest, sensible men, 
thoroughly interested in the advocacy of peace and 
trying to avoid everything that could arouse unpleasant 
feelings. The one or two little "scenes" that occurred 
were between citizens of the same country, and these 
were deplored by all before they had gotten cold. 

This Interparliamentary Conference is destined to exer- 
cise a powerful controlling influence in European politics 
ere long. Its purpose is to create a peace party in every 
legislative body in Europe and the world, and in this 
way to resist all war policies and finally to control 
legislation in the interests of peace. It discusses ques- 
tions more of a legislative and judicial character than 
the Peace Congress and seeks to carry the public 
sentiment created by the latter up into contact with the 
governing authorities of the nations. 

We are sorry that our own Congressmen have had so 
little to do with this movement, though we believe that 
twice the Conference has had representatives from the 
United States. There were none present this year, and 
this fact was spoken of with regret by many European 
delegates. The distance and difference of interest may 
count for something in the way of excuse, but while our 
country is seeking so earnestly to get other nations to 
form permanent arbitration treaties with us, there ought 
at least to be a few Senators and Representatives willing 
to go to Europe to aid in this most important and 
promising movement. 


As duelling is gradually being condemned for the 
adjustment of differences between private persons so war 
may be condemned as a practice, fitted only for savage 
nations, and wholly disgraceful and infamous when waged 
by nations pretending to civilization and professing the 
religion of the Prince of Peace. — St. Louis Advocate.